THE DOCTRINE OF THE MEAN

                   

THE DOCTRINE OF THE MEAN

 

原 文:

 

第一章

天命之謂性,率性之謂道,脩道之謂教。道也者,不可須臾離也。可離,非道也。是故,君子戒慎乎其所不睹,恐懼乎其所不聞。莫見乎隱,莫顯乎微,故君子慎其獨也。

喜怒哀樂之未發,謂之中 發而皆中節,謂之和。中也者,天下之大本也;和也者,天下之達道也。致中和,天地位焉,萬物育焉。

 

第二章

仲尼曰:君子中庸,小人反中庸。君子之中庸也,君子而時中; 小人之反中庸也, 小人而無忌憚也。〕

 

第三章

子曰:〔中庸其至矣乎!民鮮能久矣!〕

 

第四章

子曰:〔道之不行也,我知之矣 :知者過之,愚者不及也。道之不明也,我知之矣:賢者過之,不肖者不及也。人莫不飲食也,鮮能知味也。〕

 

第五章

子曰:〔道其不行矣夫!〕

 

 子曰:〔舜其大知也與!舜好問而好察邇言,隱惡而揚善,執其兩端,用其中於民,其斯以為舜乎!〕

 

第七章

 子曰:〔人皆曰『予知』;驅而納諸罟,擭陷阱之中而莫之知辟也。人皆曰『予知』;擇乎中庸而不能期月守也。〕

 

第八章

子曰:〔回之為人也,擇乎中庸,得一善,則拳拳服膺而弗失之矣。〕

 

第九章

子曰:〔天下國家可均也,爵祿可辭也,白刃可蹈也,中庸不可能也。〕

 

第十章

子路問〔強〕。子曰:〔南方之強與?北方之強與?抑而強與?寬柔以教,不報無道,南方之強也。君子居之。衽金革,死而不厭,北方之強也。而強者居之。故君子和而不流,強哉矯!中立而不倚,強哉矯!國有道,不變塞焉,強哉矯!國無道,至死不變,強哉矯!〕

 

第十一章

子曰:〔素隱行怪,後世有述焉,吾弗為之矣。君子遵道而行,半途而癈,吾弗能已矣。君子依乎中庸,遯世不見知而不悔,唯聖者能之。〕

 

第十二章

君子之道,費而隱。夫婦之愚,可以與知焉;及其至也,雖聖人亦有所不知焉。夫婦之不肖,可以能行焉;及其至也,雖聖人亦有所不能焉。天地之大也,人猶有所憾。故君子語大,天下莫能載焉;語小,天下莫能破焉。詩云:〔鳶飛戾天,魚躍于淵。〕言其上下察也。君子之道,造端乎夫婦,及其至也,察乎天地。

 

第十三章

子曰:〔道不遠人,人之為道而遠人,不可以為道。詩云 :『伐柯,伐柯,其則不遠。』執柯以伐柯,睨而視之,猶以為遠。故君子以人治人,改而止。忠如違道不遠,施諸己而不願,亦勿施於人。君子之道四,丘未能一焉。所求乎子以事父,未能也; 所求乎臣以事君,未能也;所求乎弟以事兄,未能也;所求乎朋友先施之,未能也。庸德之行,庸言之謹;有所不足,不敢不勉;有餘不敢盡。言顧行,行顧言,君子胡不慥慥爾!〕

 

第十四章

君子素其位而行,不願乎其外。素富貴,行乎富貴;素貧賤,行乎貧賤;素夷狄,行乎夷狄;素患難,行乎患難。君子無入而不自得焉!

在上位不陵下;在下位不援上,正己而不求於人,則無怨;上不怨天,下不尤人,故君子居易以俟命, 小人行險以徼幸。子曰 :〔射有似乎君子,失諸正鵠,反求諸其身。〕

 

第十五章

君子之道,辟如行遠必自邇,辟如登高必自卑。詩曰:〔妻子好合,如鼓瑟琴; 兄弟旣翕,和樂且耽;宜爾室家,樂爾妻帑。〕子曰:〔父母其順矣乎!〕。

 

第十六章

子曰:〔鬼神之為德,其盛矣乎!視之而弗見,聽之而弗聞,體物而不可遺。使天下之人,齊明盛服,以承祭祀,洋洋乎如其上,如在其左右。詩曰:『神之格思,不可度思,矧可射思。』夫微之顯,誠之不可揜如此夫!〕

 

第十七章

子曰:〔舜其大孝也與!德為聖人,尊為天子,富有四海之內;宗廟饗之,子孫保之。故大德,必得其位,必得其祿,必得其名,必得其壽。故天之生物,必因其材而篤焉,故栽者培之,傾者覆之。詩曰:『嘉樂君子,憲憲令德,宜民宜人, 受祿于天;保佑命之,自天申之』,故大德者必受命。〕

 

第十八章

子曰:〔無憂者,其惟文王乎!以王季為父,以武王為子;父作之,子述之。武王纘大王、王季、文王之緒,壹戎衣而有天下,身不失天下之顯名;尊為天子,富有四海之內;宗廟饗之 子孫保之。武王末受命,周公成文武之德,追王大王、王季,上祀先公以天子之禮。斯禮也,達乎諸侯、大夫及士、庶人。父為大夫,子為士;葬以大,夫,祭以士。父為士,子為大夫,葬以士,祭以大夫。期之喪,達乎大夫;三年之喪,達乎天子;父母之喪, 無貴賤一也。〕

 

第十九章

子曰:〔武王、周公其達孝矣乎!夫孝者善繼人之志,善述人之事者也。春秋,修其祖廟,陳其宗器,設其裳衣,薦其時食。

宗廟之禮,所以序昭穆也;序爵,所以辨貴賤也;序事,所以辨賢也;旅酬下為上,所以逮賤也;燕毛,所以序齒也。

踐其位,行其禮,奏其樂;敬其所尊,愛其所親;事死如事生,事亡如事存,孝之至也。

郊社之禮,所以事上帝也;宗廟之禮,所以祀乎其先也。明乎郊社之禮,禘嘗之義,治國其如示諸掌乎!〕

 

第二十章

哀公問政。子曰:〔文、武之政, 布在方策。其人存,則其政擧;其人亡,則其政息。人道敏政,地道敏樹。夫政也者,蒲盧也。故為政在人;取人以身,修身以道,修道以仁。仁者,人也,親親為大;義者,宜也,尊賢為大。親親之殺,尊賢之等,禮所生也。故君子不可以不修身;思修身,不可以不事親;思事親,不可以不知人;思知人,不可以不知天。

天下之達道五,所以行之者三。曰:君臣也,父子也,夫婦也,昆弟也,朋友之交也,五者,天下之達道也;知、仁、勇,三者,天下之達德也;所以行之者, 一也。或生而知之, 或學而知之,或困而知之,及其知之, 一也。或安而行之,或利而行之,或勉强而行之,及其成功, 一也〕。

子曰:〔好學近乎知,力行近乎仁,知恥近乎勇。知斯三者,則知所以修身;知所以修身,則知所以治人;知所以治人,則知所以治天下國家矣。

凡為天下國家有九經曰:修身也,尊賢也,親親也,敬大臣也,體羣臣也,子庶民也,來百工也,柔遠人也,懷諸侯也。修身,則道立;尊賢,則不惑;親親,則諸父昆弟不怨;敬大臣,則不眩;體羣臣,則士之報禮重;子庶民,則百姓勸;來百工,則財用足;柔遠人,則四方歸之;懷諸侯,則天下畏之。

齋明盛服,非禮不動,所以修身也;去讒遠色,賤貨而貴德,所以勸賢也;尊其位,重其祿,同其好惡,所以勸親親也;官盛任使,所以勸大臣也;忠信重祿, 所以勸士也;時使薄歛,所以勸百姓也;日省月試,禀稱事,所以勸百工也; 送往迎來,嘉善而矜不能,所以柔遠人也;繼絕世,廢國,治亂持危,朝聘以時,厚往而薄來,所以懷諸侯也。凡為天下國家有九經,所以行之者,一也。

凡事豫則立,不豫則廢;言前定則不跲,事前定,則不困;行前定,則不疚;道前定,則不窮。

在下位,不獲乎上,民不可得而治矣;獲乎上有道,不信乎朋友,不獲乎上矣; 信乎朋友有道,不順乎親,不信乎朋友矣;順乎親有道,反諸身不誠,不順乎親矣;誠身有道,不明乎善,不誠乎身矣。

誠者,天之道也;誠之者,人之道也。誠者,不勉而中,不思而得,從容中道, 聖人也;誠之者,擇善而固執之者也。

博學之,審問之,慎思之,明辨之,篤行之。有弗學,學之弗能弗措也;有弗問, 問之弗知佛措也;有弗思,思之弗得弗措也;有弗辨,辨之弗明弗措也;有弗行, 行之弗篤弗措也。人一能之,己百之;人十能之,己千之。果能此道矣,雖愚必明,雖柔必強。〕

 

第二十一章

自誠明,謂之性;自明誠,謂之教。誠則明矣,明則誠矣。

 

第二十二章

唯天下至誠,為能盡其性;能盡其性,則能盡人之性;能盡人之性,則能盡物之性;能盡物之性,則可以贊天地之化育;可以贊天地之化育,則可以與天地參矣。

 

第二十三章

其次致曲,曲能有誠;誠則形,形則著,著則明,明則動,動則變,變則化;唯天下至誠為能化。

 

第二十四章

至誠之道,可以前知 :國家將興,必有禎祥;國家將亡,必有妖孽;見乎蓍龜, 動乎四體;禍福將至,善,必先知之,不善,必先知之;故至誠如神。

 

第二十五章

誠者,自成也;而道,自道也。誠者,物之終始 :不誠,無物。是故,君子誠之為貴。誠者,非自成己而已也,所以成物也。成己,仁也;成物,知也;性之德也,合外內之道也,故時措之宜也。

 

第二十六章

故至誠無息;不息則久。久則徵, 徵則悠遠,悠遠則博厚,博厚則高明。博厚所以載物也,高明所以覆物也,悠久所以成物也。博厚配地,高明配天,悠久無疆。如此者,不見而章,不動而變, 無為而成。

天地之道,可一言而盡也:〔其為物不貳,則其生物不測。〕天地之道 :博也, 厚也,高也,明也,悠也,久也。今夫天,斯昭昭之多,及其無窮也,日月星辰繫焉,物覆焉。今天地, 一撮土之多;及其廣厚,載華嶽而不重,振河海而不洩,萬物載焉。今夫山, 一卷石之多,及其廣大,草木生之,禽獸居之,寶藏興焉。今夫水,一勺之多,及其不測,黿鼉蛟龍魚鼈生焉,貨財殖焉。

詩云:〔維天之命, 於穆不已。〕蓋曰天之所以為天也。〔於乎不顯,文王之德之純。〕蓋曰文王之所以為文也,純亦不已。

 

第二十七章

大哉!聖人之道!洋洋乎,發育萬物,峻極於天。優優大哉!禮儀三百,威儀三千,待其人而後行。故曰:〔苟不至德,至道不凝焉〕。故君子尊德性而道問學,致廣大而盡精微,極高明而道中庸。溫故而知新,敦厚以崇禮。是故,居上不驕,為下不倍。國有道,其言足以興;國無道,其默足以容。詩曰 :〔明且哲,以保其身〕,其此之謂與!

 

第二十八章

子曰:〔愚而好自用;賤而好自專;生乎今之世,反古之道;如此者,及其身者也。〕

非天子不議禮,不制度,不考文。今天下,車同軌,書同文,行同倫。雖有其位,苟無其德,不敢作禮樂焉; 雖有其德,苟無其位,亦不敢作禮樂焉。

子曰:〔吾說夏禮,杞不足徵也;吾學殷禮,有宋存焉;吾學周禮,今用之,吾從周。〕

 

第二十九章

王天下有三重焉,其寡過矣乎!上焉者,雖善無徵,無徵不信,不信民弗從。下焉者,雖善不尊,不尊不信,不信民弗從。故君子之道,本諸身,徵諸庶民,考諸三王而不繆,建諸天地而不悖,質諸鬼神而無疑,百世以俟聖人而不惑。質諸鬼神而無疑,知天也;百世以俟聖人而不惑, 知人也。是故,君子動而世為天下道, 行而世為天下法,言而世為天下則;遠之則有望,近之則不厭。詩曰:〔在彼無惡, 在此無射;庶幾夙夜,以永終譽〕。君子未有不如此,而蚤有譽於天下者也。

 

第三十章

仲尼祖述堯舜,憲章文武;上律天時,下襲水土。辟如天地之無不載,無不覆幬;辟如四時之錯行,如日月之代明。萬物並育而不相害,道並行而不相悖。小德川流,大德敦化。此天地之所以為大也。

 

第三十一章

唯天下至聖,為能聰明睿知。足以有臨也; 裕溫柔,足以有容也;發強剛毅, 足以有執也;齋莊中正,足有敬也;文理密察,足以有別也。溥博淵泉,而時出之。溥博如天,淵泉如淵。見而民莫不敬,言而民莫不信,行而民莫不說。是以聲名洋溢乎中國,施及蠻貊,舟車所至,人力所通,天之所覆,地之所載,日月所照,霜露所隊,凡有血氣者,莫不尊親,故曰配天。

 

第三十二章

唯天下至誠,為能經綸天下之大經,立天下之大本,知天地之化育。夫焉有所倚?肫肫其仁,淵淵其淵,浩浩其天。苟不固聰明聖知達天德者,其孰能知之?

 

第三十三章

詩曰:〔衣錦尚絅, 〕惡其文之著也。故君子之道,闇然而日章;小人之道,的然而日亡。君子之道,淡而不厭,簡而文,溫而理;知遠之近,知風之自,知微之顯,可與入德矣。

詩云:〔潛雖伏矣;亦孔之昭。〕故君子內省不疚,無惡於志。君子之所不可及者,其唯人之所不見乎!

詩云:〔相在爾室,尚不愧于屋漏。〕故君子不動而敬,不言而信。

詩曰:〔奏假無言,時靡有爭。〕故君子不賞而民勸,不怒而民威於鈇鉞。

詩曰:〔不顯惟德,百辟其刑之。〕故君子篤恭而天下平。

詩云:〔予懷明德,不大聲以色。〕子曰 :〔聲色之於以化民,末也。〕詩曰:〔德輶如毛。〕毛猶有倫。〔上天之載,無聲無臭。〕至矣。

 

 

第一章  

天命之謂性,  率性之謂道,  脩道之謂教。

 

今譯 

上天賦予人們的質性叫做〔性〕,遵循本性而行動的準則叫做〔道〕,使道臻于修明叫做〔教〕。

 

道也者,不可須臾離也。可離,非道也。是故,君子戒慎乎其所不睹,恐懼乎其所不聞。莫見乎隱,莫顯乎微,故君子慎其獨也。

 

今譯

道是一時一刻不能離開的,如果可以離開,那就不成其為道了。因此,有良好品德修養的人,在不會被人看見的時候也總是警惕謹慎的,在不能被人聽到的地方也總是惶恐小心的。在隱蔽的情況也不要表現出不好的行為,在細小的事情上也不要暴露出不良的思想。所以,品德良好的人在單獨居處的時候更要謹慎小心。

 

喜怒哀樂之未發,謂之中;發而皆中節,謂之和。中也者,天下之大本也;和也者,天下之達道也。致中和,天地位焉,萬物育焉。

 

今譯

喜怒哀樂這些情感在還沒有迸發出來的時候,這種狀態叫做〔中〕;這些情感迸發出來而能夠完全符合法度,這種情況叫做〔和〕。中,是天下萬事萬物的根本;和,是天下普遍通行法則,能夠做到〔中和〕,那天地就會按正常秩序運行, 萬物就能生長發育。

 

(1)   What is endowed by Heaven is called the nature; to follow that nature is called they way; to cultivate the way is called culture.

 

One cannot depart from his way for an instant, what can be departed is not a way.  A man of moral integrity is always discreet and vigilant when he is beyond others’ sight, apprehensive and cautious when beyond others’ hearing.  One should never misbehave even when he is in privacy, nor should he reveal evil intentions even in trivial matters.  So a moral person remains circumspect especially when he is alone.

 

Feelings like joy, anger, sorrow and happiness are in the state of the mean when they are kept in heart; they are in the state of harmony when expressed in conformity with moral standards.  The mean is the fundament of everything under heaven, and harmony the universal law.  With the mean and harmony, the earth moves orderly, and everything thereon grows and flourishes.

 

 

第二章                

 

仲尼曰 :〔君子中庸,  小人反中庸。君子之中庸也, 君子而時中   小人之中庸也, (注:朱熹《四書章句集注》說 :〔『王肅本作』小人之反中庸也,  程子亦以為然,  譯文從之。) 小人而無忌憚也。〕

 

今譯

仲尼說 :〔品德高尚者的言行符合中庸原則, 品德低下者的言行違背中庸原則。品德高尚者的言行符合中庸原則, 因為他們是品德高尚的君子, 做事時時符合法度; 品德低下者的言行違背中庸原則, 因為他們是品德低下的小人, 做事總是肆無忌憚。〕

 

(2)   Said Confucius: “A man of noble character speaks and conducts himself according to the doctrine of the mean, white a man of vile character speaks and conducts himself in violation of that doctrine.  The man of noble character observes the doctrine of the mean, as his high morality enables him to act in conformity with moral standards at all times; the man of vile character goes against that doctrine, as his degenerating morality causes him careless of all the rules of proprieties.”

 

 

第三章      

子曰 :〔中庸其至矣乎!民鮮能久矣!〕

 

今譯

孔子說 :〔中庸之道真是至善至美啊!可惜長期以來一般老百姓却很少能够做得到!〕

 

(3)   Said Confucius; “The doctrine of the mean is the acme of perfection! The pity is that it has long been seldom in the practice of the public.”

 

第四章      

子曰 :〔道之不行也, 我知之矣 :知者過之, 愚者不及也; 道之不明也, 我知之矣:賢者過之, 不肖者不及也。人莫不飲食也, 鮮能知味也。〕

 

今譯

孔子說 :〔中庸之道所以不能實行, 其原因我已經知道了, 這就是聰明的人超越了中庸的標準, 而愚昧的人又達不到中庸的標準。中庸之道所以不能昭著, 其原因我已經知道了, 這就是賢明的人超越了中庸的標準, 而不賢明的人又達不到中庸的標準。這就像沒有人不吃不喝, 但很少有人能真正品嘗出其中的滋味一樣。〕

 

(4)   Said Confucius;  “The doctrine of the mean has not been practiced, the reason for which as I see is that the wise goes beyond the norm of the mean, and the benighted fails to reach the standard of the mean.  The doctrine of the mean has not been obvious, the reason for which as I see is that the virtuous goes beyond the norm of the mean, and the unworthy fails to reach the standard of the mean.  Everybody eats and drinks, but few savour what they eat and drink.”

 

 

第五章

子曰 :〔道其不行矣夫!〕

 

今譯

孔子說 :〔中庸之道大概是難以做得到的吧!〕

 

(5)   Said Confucius: “It is probable that the doctrine of the mean cannot be practiced without making efforts.”

 

 

第六章

子曰 :〔舜其大知也與!舜好問而好察邇言, 隱惡而揚善, 執其兩端, 用其中於民, 其斯以為舜乎!〕

 

 

 

 

今譯

孔子說 :〔舜可算是個最有智慧的人了吧!他喜歡詢問別人, 又喜歡審察日常淺近的話, 掩蓋人們不好的言行, 宣揚人們好的言行, 掌握過激和不足兩個方面, 加以折衷, 施行於民眾。這大概就是舜所以成其為舜的道理吧!〕

 

(6)   Said Confucius “Shun * may well be counted as a man of great wisdom He was inquisitive and fond of investigating the ordinary popular language.  He concealed others’ misbehaviour and publicized others’ good deeds.  What he did for the people was based on the mean he drew from the two extremities of things of diametric opposition.  That explains why he was esteemed as Shun.”         

 

* shun, a legendary  monarch of ancient China.

 

 

第七章

子曰 :〔人皆曰『予知』; 驅而納諸罟, 擭陷阱之中而莫之知辟也。人皆曰『予知』; 擇乎中庸而不能期月守也。〕

 

今譯

孔子說 :〔人人都說『我聰明』, 可是, 被人驅趕進了羅網陷阱, 不知道躲避。人人都說『我聰明』, 可是, 既然選擇了中庸之道却又連恪守一個月的時間也做不到。〕

 

(7)   Said Confucius “Everybody says ‘I am wise’ but knows not to escape when driven to be trapped. Everybody says ‘I am wise’ but abides not for a month the doctrine of the mean for which he has opted.”

 

 

第八章

子曰 :〔回之為人也, 擇乎中庸, 得一善, 則拳拳服膺而弗失之矣。〕

 

今譯

 

孔子說 :〔顏回為人, 選擇了中庸之道, 只要明白一個好的道理, 就牢牢記在心上, 永遠不把它丟掉。〕

 

(8)   Said Confucius: “Yan Hui’s * attitude toward life is to follow the doctrine of the mean.  Once he learns a good doctrine, he bears it in mind and will never abandon it.”                                                             

*Yan Hui, one of the disciples Confucius taught personally.   

 

 

第九章

子曰 :〔天下國家可均也, 爵祿可辭也, 白刃可蹈也, 中庸不可能也。〕

 

今譯

孔子說 :〔天下國家可以理好, 官爵俸祿可以推辭掉, 白光閃閃的刀刃可以踏上去, 中庸之道却不容易做得到。〕

 

(9)   Said Confucius The land under heaven can be administered to bring about great order across it official ranks and emoluments can be declined and sharp blades with blazing edges can be trod but the doctrine of the mean is not easy to practice.”

 

第十章

子路問 〔強〕。子曰 :〔南方之強與? 北方之強與? 抑而強與? 寬柔以教, 不報無道, 南方之強也。君子居之。衽金革, 死而不厭, 北方之強也。而強者居之。故君子和而不流, 強哉矯!中立而不倚, 強哉矯!國有道, 不變塞焉, 強哉矯!國無道, 至死不變, 強哉矯!〕

 

今譯

子路詢問什麼是堅強。孔子說 :〔你問的是南方人的堅強呢, 北方人的堅強呢, 還是你自己這樣的堅強呢? 以寬厚柔順的精神教誨別人, 對暴虐無德的行為也不加報復, 這是南方人的堅強, 有良好品德修養的人安處此道。披堅執銳, 死而無憾, 這是北方人的堅強, 性格強悍的人奉行此道。因此, 有良好品德修養的人, 平和柔順但又不隨波逐流, 這是多麼堅強啊!國家政治清明的時候, 不改變不得志時的志向, 這是多麼堅強啊!國家政治黑暗的時候, 至死也不改變平時的操守, 這是多麼堅強啊!〕

 

(10)  When asked by Zilu * to define strength, replied Confucius: “Which are you seeking, the strength of the southerners, of the northerners, or of yourself?  The southerners are strong in that they teach people the gist of magnanimity and gentleness, and advocate dismissing revenge for others’ invading atrocity.  It is the way with which a man of integrity is content.  The northerners are strong in that they buckle on their armours and take up weapons to go forth to bloody battles without fear of death.  It is the way with which a man of intrepidity is content.  Therefore, a man of good cultivation is placid and moderate, yet following no fashion but his own.  That is genuine strength.  He takes with impartiality the firm stand of the mean.  That is genuine strength.  If the government is upright and the state well governed, he cherished his aspirations he had when he was not in the ascendant.  That is genuine strength.  If the government is corrupt and the rule is dark, he still sticks to his normal course unto death.  That is genuine strength.”                                             

 

*Zilu, one of the disciples Confucius taught personally.                                         

 

 

第十一章

子曰 :〔素隱行怪, 後世有述焉, 吾弗為之矣。君子遵道而行, 半途而癈, 吾弗能已矣。君子依乎中庸, 遯世不見知而不悔, 唯聖者能之。〕

 

今譯

孔子說 :〔追求生僻的道理, 好做出奇的事情, 會得到後世的稱道, 但我不做這種事。品德修養好的人遵循中庸之道去做, 有人半塗而廢, 但我是不能停止的, 品德修養好的人遵循中庸之道, 卽使隱居山林而不被世人了解也不後悔, 這只有聖人才能够做到。〕

                                                                                                                 

(11)  Said Confucius: “Probing unto absurd and obscure senses and committing eccentricity, which may win appraisals from posterity, are what I shall never undertake.  Among the men of good cultivation following the doctrine of the mean, some may give up halfway, but I shall not following it.  Only the saints will not regret following the doctrine of the mean at the coast of remaining anonymous and unknown to the world.”

 

 

第十二章

君子之道, 費而隱。夫婦之愚, 可以與知焉; 及其至也, 雖聖人亦有所不知焉。夫婦之不肖, 可以能行焉; 及其至也, 雖聖人亦有所不能焉。天地之大也, 人猶有所憾。故君子語大, 天下莫能載焉; 語小, 天下莫能破焉。詩云 :〔鳶飛戾天, 魚躍于淵。〕 言其上下察也。君子之道, 造端乎夫婦, 及其至也, 察乎天地。

 

今譯

品德高尚的人所奉行的處世準則, 既普遍又深刻。一般道理, 連愚笨的男男女女也可以了解; 到高深精妙的地方, 卽使聖人也不能完全明白。一般準則, 連不賢明的男男女女也能夠做到; 到高深精妙的地方, 卽使聖人也有做不到的。天地如此之偉大, 人們尚且還有不滿意的地方。因此, 品德高尚的人說到道的博大, 博大到天下簡直無法負載得了它; 說它細微, 細微到天下沒有什麼再能夠把它分割。《詩經》上說 :〔鷂鷹飛向天空, 魚兒跳入深淵。〕 這是比喻聖人之德在天地上下都是顯明昭著的。品德高尚的人所奉行的處世準則, 起始於普通男女之間的所作所為; 到其最高深精妙之處, 則能顯赫於天地宇宙之間。

 

(12)  The philosophy of life the men of high morality pursue is both common and profound.  Its general idea is known to ignorant men and women, but its recondite quintessence is beyond the attainment of the saint.  Its general standard is practicable to mediocre men and women, but its highest demand is beyond the reach of the saint. Great as the universe is, there are people who may feel discontent with it.  Therefore, the virtue of a man of  high  morality is so vast that the universe can hardly contain it, it is also so tiny that nothing in the universe can cut it apart.  It is said in The Book of Songs*:“Sparrow hawks fly up in the sky, fish swim down in the abyss.” That is by way of analogy to say that the virtue of the saint is highly clear on the earth as well as in the sky.  The philosophy of life the men of high morality pursue begins in the manners of the ordinary men and women, but its superlative manifestation is illustrious in the universe.  

* The Book of Songs, the earliest anthology of poems and one of the Five Classics.

 

第十三章

子曰 :〔道不遠人, 人之為道而遠人, 不可以為道。詩云 :『伐柯, 伐柯, 其則不遠。』執柯以伐柯, 睨而視之, 猶以為遠。故君子以人治人, 改而止。

 

今譯       

孔子說 :〔中庸之道是不遠離人的。如果一個人奉行中庸之道而使它遠離了人, 那就稱不上是中庸之道了。《詩經》上說:〔隨便砍塊木頭做斧柄, 會覺得那尺寸相差不遠。〕 可是, 拿着斧柄去砍伐本頭做斧柄, 斜起眼睛仔細比照一番, 倒會覺得還是相差很遠。因此, 統治者只能根據各人的情況治理人們, 人家改正了以前的錯誤就要作罷。

 

忠如違道不遠, 施諸己而不願, 亦勿施於人。

 

今譯

能夠做到竭盡心力的〔忠〕 和推己及人的 〔恕〕, 這就離中庸之道不遠了。凡是不願意別人施加于自己的行為, 也就不要施加於別人。

 

君子之道四, 丘未能一焉。所求乎子以事父, 未能也; 所求乎臣以事君, 未能也; 所求乎弟以事兄, 未能也; 所求乎朋友先施之, 未能也。庸德之行, 庸言之謹; 有所不足, 不敢不勉; 有餘不敢盡。言顧行, 行顧言, 君子胡不慥慥爾!〕

 

今譯

品德高尚者所奉行的行為準則有四條, 我孔丘一條也沒有做得到

用要求人子應有的行為去侍奉父親, 我沒有做到;

用要求人臣應有的行為去侍奉君王, 我沒有做到;

用要求人弟應有的行為去侍奉兄長, 我沒有做到;

要求朋友應該做到的自己首先去做, 我沒有做到。

在遵守一般道德方面, 在普通言談的謹慎方面, 做得不夠的, 不敢不努力去做; 做得好的, 也不敢把話說盡。說話時要想到行動如何, 辦事時也要想到說過的話。這樣看來, 作為一個有道德的人, 怎麼能不忠厚老實呢?

 

 

(13)        Said Confucius:“The doctrine of the mean never distances itself from any person.  If anyone pursuing the doctrine makes it unapproachable to others, then what he pursues in by no means the doctrine of the mean.  It said in The Book of Songs:‘Cut a piece of wood to make a helve, you will find its size fit.’  But when you squint to compare it with the helve in your hand, you will find its size unfit.  Therefore, the monarch of a country should rule over the people according to their individual conditions, and stop interfering in their conduct when their mistakes are corrected.

 

      “One nears the doctrine of the mean when he is faithful to and considerate of others.  What you would not have others do unto you should not be done unto them.

 

      “The code of conduct a man of moral integrity pursues includes four requirements, but I can fulfill none: I do not wait upon my father as a son should, I do not wait upon the monarch as a subject should, I do not wait upon my elder brother as a younger brother should, I do not take the initiative to do what I demand of my friends.  I dare not s top exerting myself to remedy my defects in observing moral standards and in speaking with prudence.  I dare not say fine words even if I do observe moral standards and speak with prudence.  Think of what you did when you speak, and think of what you said when you act.  Therefore, a man of high morality should be no otherwise than honest.”           

 

 

第十四章

 

君子素其位而行, 不願乎其外。素富貴, 行乎富貴; 素貧賤, 行乎貧賤; 素夷狄, 行乎夷狄; 素患難, 行乎患難。君子無入而不自得焉!

 

今譯

品德高尚的人總是根據自己平常所處的地位而行動, 不願意超越本分。平常處於富貴地位的, 就做富貴地位的人應該做的; 平常處於貧賤地位的, 就做貧賤地位的人應該做的;平常處在夷狄地區的, 就做夷狄應該做的;平常處在患難境地的, 就做患難之人應該做的。品德高尚的人無論處在什麼地位, 沒有不是安分得的。

 

在上位不陵下; 在下位不援上, 正己而不求於人, 則無怨; 上不怨天, 下不尤人, 故君子居易以俟命, 小人行險以徼幸。子曰 :〔射有似乎君子, 失諸正鵠, 反求諸其身。〕

 

今譯

處在上位, 不欺凌處於下位的人; 處在下位, 不高攀處於上位的人。端正自己的品行而不責求別人, 這樣便沒有什麼怨恨。對上不怨恨天命, 對下不歸咎別。因此, 品德高尚的人處於平安的地位等待天命, 品德低下的人行為冒險妄圖意外地獲得成功或免除不幸。孔子說 :〔射箭就像品德高尚者處事, 如果射不中靶心, 並不責怪別人, 而是回過頭來責備自己。〕

 

(14) A man of  high morality acts in accordance with his status and seeks nothing beyond.  If he is ordinarily wealthy and ranking, he does what a man of wealth and rand should do; if he is ordinarily straitened and humble, he does what a man of straits and humbleness should do; if he is ordinarily in the minority areas, he does what a minority should do; if he is ordinarily in adversity, he does what a man in adversity should do.  A man of high morality knows and rests content with his place, whatever it may be.

 

      When he s superior in position, he never bullies anyone inferior to him; when he is inferior in position, he never fawns on anyone superior to him.  As he corrects his own misbehavior and never makes excessive demands of others, he bears no resentment against them.  He blames neither god, when looking upward, nor other people, when looking downward.  Therefore, a man of noble character remains at ease in his ordinary place to wait the mandate of heaven, while a man of vile character ventures to fluke success or to avoid mishap.  Said Confucius: “Shooting an arrow is analogous to a moral person’s handling affairs, if he misses the bull’s eye, he reproaches no one but himself.”

 

 

第十五章

 

君子之道, 辟如行遠必自邇, 辟如登高必自卑。詩曰 :〔妻子好合, 如鼓瑟琴; 兄弟旣翕, 和樂且耽; 宜爾室家, 樂爾妻帑。〕 子曰 :〔父母其順矣乎!〕。

 

今譯

品德高尚者實踐他的行為準則, 好比走遠路, 一定要從近處啟程; 譬如登高處, 必須從低處出發。《詩經》上說:〔妻子兒女感情好, 如同琴瑟五音調。兄弟相處好親密, 和睦愉快樂陶陶。讓你家庭更美滿, 讓你妻兒歡樂多。〕 孔子說 :〔像這樣, 父母就會順心滿意了吧!〕

 

(15)  A moral person’s practicing his code of conduct can be compared to taking a long journey which must start from the immediately close point or ascending a height which must begin from the bottommost ground.  It is said in the Book of Songs; “Living affectionately with one’s wife and children is like playing musical instruments harmoniously.  Getting along fraternally with one’s brother is highly delightful.  May your family be happy. May your wife and children be joyous.”  Said Confucius: “Parents will thus be satisfied.”

 

 

 

第十六章

 

子曰 :〔鬼神之為德, 其盛矣乎!視之而弗見, 聽之而弗聞, 體物而不可遺。使天下之人, 齊明盛服, 以承祭祀, 洋洋乎如其上, 如在其左右。詩曰 :『神之格思, 不可度思, 矧可射思。』夫微之顯, 誠之不可揜如此夫!〕

 

今譯

孔子說 :〔鬼神的德行真是偉大啊!看他看不見形體, 聽也聽不到聲音, 但又生養萬物無所遺漏, 使得天下的人都齋戒沐浴, 穿戴整齊, 舉行祭祀。靈氣浩蕩, 像在人的頭頂, 又像在人身旁。《詩經》裏說:〔神的降臨不可推測, 怎麼能夠懈怠不恭呢!〔鬼神的威力從隱微到顯著, 它的誠信就是這樣不能掩蓋啊!〕

 

(16)  Said Confucius:“How mighty the virtue of the supernatural being is.  Though invisible when looked at, inaudible when listened to, its omnipresence nourishes everything under heaven, so that all people in the country abstain from meat and wine, take bath and dress themselves up to offer sacrifice to it.  People sense its existence as if it is above or around them.  It is said in The Book of Songs:“The advent of the god is unpredictable, how can we slack our reverential awe?”  The might of the supernatural being permeates things obscure and obvious, its trustworthiness is so evident that is can never be concealed by any means.”

 

 

第十七章

 

子曰 :〔舜其大孝也與!德為聖人, 尊為天子, 富有四海之內; 宗廟饗之, 子孫保之。故大德, 必得其位, 必得其祿, 必得其名, 必得其壽。故天之生物, 必因其材而篤焉, 故栽者培之, 傾者覆之。詩曰 :『嘉樂君子, 憲憲令德, 宜民宜人, 受祿于天; 保佑命之, 自天申之』, 故大德者必受命。〕

 

 

 

今譯

孔子說 :〔舜可算是頂孝順的人了吧!論德行, 是聖人; 論尊貴, 是天子; 論富有, 則擁有四海之地。享受着宗廟的祭祀, 子子孫孫永遠保持祭祀不斷。因此, 凡是具有極高得的人, 一定會得到應有的尊位, 一定會得到應有的厚祿, 一定會得到應有的美名, 定會得到應有的高壽。因而上天生育萬物, 一定會根據它們各自的資質而認真處置, 可以栽培的就培育它們, 傾倒了的也就只能讓它們倒下去。《詩經》裏說:〔美善和樂周成王, 赫赫盛德放光芒; 好叫臣民俱安樂, 受祿於天能久享。上天保佑又賜命, 永葆福祿萬年長。〕所以, 凡具有極高德行的人一定會承受天做天子。

 

(17)  Said Confucius:“shun may be accounted as the most filial. In view of his virtue, he was a saint.  In view of the esteem he gained, he was the son ho Heaven.  In view of his wealth, he possessed the whole world.  He was and would ever be enshrined and offered sacrifices by posterity.  So a man of consummate virtue is bound to have all he deserves, the respected status, the handsome emoluments, the good reputation and the longevity.  Heaven creates all things in the universe, and handles them with measures suited to their nature ……..to cultivate the cultivable and let the toppled fall.  It is said in The Book of Songs: ‘How praiseworthy and pleasant King Cheng of the Zhou Dynasty is, how glorious his merit is, he makes all his subjects live in peace and happiness.  His reign, predestinated by Heaven, lasts for long, his bounties, blessed by Heaven, remain for aeon’.  Therefore, the man of consummate virtue is certainly to be the son of Heaven by the grace of God.”

 

 

第十八章

 

子曰 :〔無憂者, 其惟文王乎!以王季為父, 以武王為子; 父作之, 子述之。武王纘大王、王季、文王之緒, 壹戎衣而有天下, 身不失天下之顯名; 尊為天子, 富有四海之內; 宗廟饗之 子孫保之。

 

今譯

孔子說 :〔沒有憂愁的人, 大概只有周文王吧!他有父親王季, 有兒子武王, 父親開拓, 兒子繼承。武王繼承太王古公亶父、王季、文王的功業, 滅了大殷王朝而得到天下。自身沒有失去顯赫的名聲; 尊則為天子, 富則擁有四海, 享受宗廟的祭祀, 子子孫孫永保香火不斷。

 

武王末受命, 周公成文武之德, 追王大王、王季, 上祀先公以天子之禮。斯禮也, 達乎諸侯、大夫及士、庶人。父為大夫, 子為士; 葬以大,夫, 祭以士。父為士, 子為大夫,葬以士, 祭以大夫。期之喪, 達乎大夫; 三年之喪, 達乎天子; 父母之喪, 無貴賤一也。〕

 

今譯

〔周武王晚年承天命做天子; 武王死後, 周公成就了文王和武王的功德, 追加太王, 王季的帝王謚號, 按天子的禮制祭祀先祖, 這種禮制, 一直推行到諸侯、大夫, 以至士人、百姓之中。如果父親是大夫, 兒子是士, 父親死了, 埋葬就按照大夫的禮制, 祭祀則按照士的禮制; 如果父親是士, 兒子是大夫, 父親死了, 埋葬就按照士的禮制, 祭祀則按照大夫的禮制。一年守喪期的規定, 大夫也要遵守; 三年守喪期的規定, 天子也要遵守; 給父母守喪的規定, 不管地位尊卑, 都是一樣的。〕

 

(18)  Said Confucius:“The only person free from all anxieties might be King Wen of the Zhou Dynasty, with meritorious deeds pioneered by his father Wang Ji and succeeded by his son King Wu.  King Wu carried forward and forged ahead the exploits of Tai Wang, Wang Ji and King Wen, and overthrew the Yin Dynasty to win the rule over the country.  He also retained a great renown.  He was esteemed as the son of Heaven, in possession of the whole world, to be enshrined and offered sacrifices by all the succeeding generations.

“After King Wu, Zhou Gong accomplished the great task of King Wen and  King Wu, and conferred upon Tai Wang and Wang Ji with posthumous titles as kings, and enshrined his ancestors with rites for sons of Heaven.  Rites of the same kind was later practiced among feudal dukes, princes, senior officials, shi* and the common people.  Suppose the father was a senior official and the son a shi, when the father died, his obsequies were celebrated with those for a senior official, and the enshrinement was that celebrated by a shi; if the father was a shi and the son a senior official, then the obsequies were those for a shi, and the enshrinement was that celebrated by a senior official.  The convention of one-year mourning period was abode by the senior officials, the convention of three-year mourning period was abode  even by the son of Heaven; and conventions of mourning period were abode by all the noble and the humble.”                                                  

*shi, the stratum between senior officials and common people.               

 

第十九章

 

子曰 :〔武王、周公其達孝矣乎!夫孝者善繼人之志, 善述人之事者也。春秋,修其祖廟, 陳其宗器, 設其裳衣, 薦其時食。

 

今譯

孔子說 :〔周武王和周公可算是通達孝道了吧!所謂孝, 就是善於繼承人皂志向, 善於繼承先人的事業。春秋祭祀的時候, 整修祖宗的廟宇, 陳列祖傳的器具, 擉開祖先的衣服, 貢獻應時的食品。

 

宗廟之禮, 所以序昭穆也; 序爵, 所以辨貴賤也; 序事, 所以辨賢也; 旅酬下為上, 所以逮賤也; 燕毛, 所以序齒也。

 

今譯

宗廟祭祀的禮節, 是為了區別父子、長幼、親疏的次序; 按照爵位排列順序, 是為了分尊貴與卑賤; 按照職務排列順序, 是為了區分賢與不賢; 卑下者依次給長輩敬酒, 是為了體現把恩典施加到卑下者身上; 按照毛髮顏色黑白排列宴飲的座次, 是為了分別年齡大小。

 

踐其位, 行其禮, 奏其樂; 敬其所尊, 愛其所親; 事死如事生, 事亡如事存, 孝之至也。

 

今譯

站到排定的位置上, 施行先王的禮節, 演奏先王的音樂, 尊敬先王所尊敬的, 熱愛先王所熱愛的, 侍奉死去的就像侍奉活着的一樣, 侍奉不存在的就像侍奉存在的一樣, 真是孝順到極點了!

 

郊社之禮, 所以事上帝也; 宗廟之禮, 所以祀乎其先也。明乎郊社之禮, 禘嘗之義, 治國其如示諸掌乎!〕

 

今譯

舉行祭天的郊禮和祭地的社禮, 是為了敬奉天帝; 舉行宗廟的祭祀, 是為了祭祀自己的祖先。明白了〔郊〕、〔社〕、〔禘〕、〔嘗〕 等各種大小祭祀的禮和意義, 那麼, 治理國家大概就好像把東西擺在手掌上一樣容易了吧!〕

 

(19)  Said Confucius:“KING Wu and Zhou Gong were well versed in the true implication of filial piety.  Filial piety means to carry out successfully the ideal and task of one’s ancestors.  When offering sacrifices to ancestors in spring and autumn, one should renovate the ancestral temple, display utensils and clothing left by the ancestors, and sacrifice foods in season. 

“Ceremonial rules of offering sacrifices in the ancestral temple is for making distinction between the father and the son, the elder and the young, and the close and distant relatives: to arrange sequence according to ranks is for distinguishing the noble and the humble; to arrange sequence according to positions is for distinguishing the prominent and the mediocre; to let the juniors toast in proper order their seniors is for reflecting the grace bestowed on the inferiors; to assign the seats at dinner according to the colour of hair is for distinguishing the differences of seniority. 

One should stand on the assigned position, observe the etiquettes set by the great kings of past dynasties, play their music, respect what they respected, and love what they loved.  To attend on the dead as if to attend on the living, or to attend on the nonexistent, as if to attend on the existent, is the utmost of filial piety.”

“Rites to offer sacrifices to Heaven and Earth are celebrations dedicated to God; to offer sacrifices in “ancestral temple is to worship one’s ancestors.  If  people understand the significances of different rites, such as offering sacrifices to Heaven and Earth, rites celebrated in the imperial ancestral temple and the autumn sacrificial ceremony, administering the country will be as easy as seeing things in one’s palm.”

 

 

第二十章

哀公問政。子曰 :〔文、武之政, 布在方策。其人存, 則其政擧; 其人亡, 則其政息。人道敏政, 地道敏樹。夫政也者, 蒲盧也。故為政在人; 取人以身, 修身以道, 修道以仁。

 

今譯

魯哀向孔子詢問治理政事方面的事。孔子說 :〔周文王、周武王的政令, 都記載在各種典籍裏。那聖君賢臣在, 那文王、武王的政令就能施行; 那些聖君賢臣沒有了, 那文王 、武王的政令也便廢止。用人堅持的法則是肯努力辦理政事, 種地堅持的法則是肯努力栽培草木。這樣政事就會像蘆葦容易生長一樣, 不難治理。所以為政之道, 關鍵在於有賢人。要想得賢人, 就必須搞好自身修養; 要想搞好自身修養, 就必須按照天下通行的準則進行; 要想做按天下通行的準則辦事, 就必須遵循仁愛的原則。

 

仁者, 人也, 親親為大; 義者, 宜也, 尊賢為大。親親之殺, 尊賢之等, 禮所生也。故君子不可以不修身; 思修身, 不可以不事親; 思事親, 不可以不知人; 思知人, 不可以不知天。

 

今譯

〔仁〕 的意思, 也就是 〔人〕。親近愛戴自己的親人是最大的仁。〔義〕 的意思, 也就是 〔宜〕。尊重賢者是最大的義。在親近愛戴親人方面的差別, 在尊重賢者方面的差別, 都是由禮節的要求而產生的。因此身居統治地位的人不能不搞好自身修養。要想搞好自身修養, 就不能不侍奉父母; 要想侍奉好父母, 就不能不知道關於尊賢愛人方面的道理; 要想了解關於尊賢愛人方面的道理, 就不能不知道關於天道方面的學問。〕

 

天下之達道五, 所以行之者三。曰:君臣也, 父子也, 夫婦也, 昆弟也, 朋友之交也, 五者, 天下之達道也; 知、仁、勇, 三者, 天下之達德也; 所以行之者, 一也。或生而知之, 或學而知之, 或困而知之, 及其知之, 一也。或安而行之, 或利而行之, 或勉强而行之, 及其成功, 一也〕。

 

今譯

天下通行的偉大準則有五個方面, 賴以實行的品德有三點。君臣關係、父子關係、夫婦關係、兄弟關係、朋友交往, 這五個方面是天下通行的偉大準則。智慧、仁愛、勇敢, 這三點是天下通行的偉大品德, 而賴以實踐這些偉大品德的條件則是一樣的。這些, 有的人天生就知道, 有的人學習以後就知道, 有的人處困境以後才知道, 但當他們知道以後, 其結果則是同樣的。有的人是心安理得地實行, 有的人是為謀求好處而實行, 有的人是勉勉強強地實行, 但當他們成功以後, 其結果則是同樣的。

 

子曰 :〔好學近乎知, 力行近乎仁, 知恥近乎勇。知斯三者, 則知所以修身; 知所以修身, 則知所以治人; 知所以治人, 則知所以治天下國家矣。

 

今譯

孔子說 :〔喜歡學習就接近智慧了, 努力行善就接近仁愛了, 知道羞耻就接近勇敢了。知道這三條, 那就知道該怎樣加強自我修養; 知道怎樣加強自我修養, 那就知道該怎樣治理眾人; 知道怎樣治理眾人, 那也就知道怎樣治理天下治理國家了。〕

 

凡為天下國家有九經曰 :修身也, 尊賢也, 親親也, 敬大臣也, 體羣臣也, 子庶民也, 來百工也, 柔遠人也, 懷諸侯也。修身, 則道立; 尊賢, 則不惑; 親親, 則諸父昆弟不怨; 敬大臣, 則不眩; 體羣臣, 則士之報禮重; 子庶民, 則百姓勸; 來百工, 則財用足; 柔遠人, 則四方歸之; 懷諸侯, 則天下畏之。

 

今譯

大凡治理天下國家, 有九條準則, 這便是 :加強自我修養, 尊重賢人, 熱愛親人, 敬重大臣, 體恤眾臣, 愛民如子, 招徠各種工匠, 對邊遠地區的人民實行懷柔政策, 安撫各國諸侯。 能夠加強自我修養, 崇高的道德準則就能樹立起來; 能夠尊重賢人, 遇到問題就不會迷惑; 能夠熱愛親人, 伯叔兄弟就不會有怨恨; 能夠敬重大臣, 辦事就會不糊塗; 能夠體恤眾臣, 士人就會加倍報答; 能夠愛民如子, 百姓們就會自覺努力; 能夠招徠各種工匠, 財富貨物就會充足; 對邊遠地區的人民實行懷柔政策, 四方邊境的人民就會歸順; 安撫各國諸侯, 天下人就會敬畏。

 

齋明盛服, 非禮不動, 所以修身也; 去讒遠色, 賤貨而貴德, 所以勸賢也; 尊其位, 重其祿, 同其好惡, 所以勸親親也; 官盛任使, 所以勸大臣也; 忠信重祿, 所以勸士也; 時使薄歛, 所以勸百姓也; 日省月試, 禀稱事, 所以勸百工也; 送往迎來, 嘉善而矜不能, 所以柔遠人也; 繼絕世, 廢國, 治亂持危, 朝聘以時, 厚往而薄來, 所以懷諸侯也。凡為天下國家有九經, 所以行之者, 一也。

 

今譯

內心虔誠, 外表端莊, 不符合禮制的事不做, 這是自我修養的方法。摒除愛說別人壞話的小人, 遠離漂亮的女子, 輕視財物而重視品德, 這是勸勉賢人的方法。讓他們的爵位尊崇, 增加他們的俸祿, 同他們好惡一致, 這是勸勉熱愛親人的方法。為大臣多設下屬官員而足以驅使, 這是勸勉大臣的方法。講究忠誠信守, 俸祿豐厚, 這是勸勉士人的方法。役使適時, 輕征賦稅, 這是勸勉百姓的方法。天天審察, 月月考核, 付給的糧食工薪同他們付出的勞動相稱, 這是勸勉工匠的方法。走的歡送, 來的迎接, 嘉奬行為好的, 同情能力差的, 這是對邊遠地區人民進行懷柔的方法。讓已經絕後的世系得以延續, 振興已經沒落了的邦國, 治理動亂, 扶持危難, 朝見聘問按時舉行, 多給賞賜, 少要納貢, 這是安撫諸侯的方法。治理天下國家的準則有九條, 而賴以實行這些準則的條件則是相同的。

 

凡事豫則立, 不豫則廢; 言前定則不跲, 事前定, 則不困; 行前定. 則不疚; 道前定, 則不窮。

 

 

 

今譯

任何事情, 事前有準備就能成功, 沒有準備就會失敗。說話前預先想定, 就不會語塞; 事情發生前預先想定, 就不會遭受挫折; 行動前預先想定, 就不會有什麼毛病; 行為原則預先想定, 就不會走投無路。

 

在下位, 不獲乎上, 民不可得而治矣; 獲乎上有道, 不信乎朋友, 不獲乎上矣; 信乎朋友有道, 不順乎親, 不信乎朋友矣; 順乎親有道, 反諸身不誠, 不順乎親矣; 誠身有道, 不明乎善, 不誠乎身矣。

 

今譯

處在下位而不能得到處上位者的信任, 那就不能夠治理好人民。要得到處上位者的信任是方法的 :如果不被朋友信任, 也就是不到處上位者的信任了。要取得朋友的信任是有方法的 :如果不順從父母, 也就得不到朋友的信任了。要能夠順從父母是有方法的 :如果自身不誠實, 也就不能夠順從父母了。要想自身誠實是有方法的 :如果不明白什麼是善, 自身也就不能誠實了。

 

誠者, 天之道也; 誠之者, 人之道也。誠者, 不勉而中, 不思而得, 從容中道, 聖人也; 誠之者, 擇善而固執之者也。

博學之, 審問之, 慎思之, 明辨之, 篤行之。

 

今譯

誠實, 這是自然的法則; 做到誠實, 這是為人的法則。自然的誠實, 不用勉強便能做到, 不用思索面能達到, 自然而然就能符合準則, 人能做到這樣。讓人們做到誠實, 則要選擇善道而堅守不渝。要廣博地學習, 詳細地詢問, 謹慎地思考, 清楚地辨別, 忠實地實行。

有弗學, 學之弗能弗措也; 有弗問, 問之弗知佛措也; 有弗思, 思之弗得弗措也; 有弗辨, 辨之弗明弗措也; 有弗行, 行之弗篤弗措也。人一能之, 己百之; 人十能之, 己千之。果能此道矣, 雖愚必明, 雖柔必強。〕

 

今譯

要麼不學習, 既然學習, 學不會就不罷休; 要麼不詢問, 既然詢問, 弄不懂就不罷休; 要麼不思考, 既然思考, 沒有收獲就不罷休; 要麼不辨別, 既然辨別, 不辨別清楚就不罷休; 要麼不實行, 既然實行, 不忠實努力地做徹底就不罷休。別人一次就能做到了, 我就學做一百次; 別人十次就能做到了, 我就學做一千次。果真能這樣做, 既使愚笨也一定會變聰明, 卽使柔弱也一定會變堅強。

                                                                                                                       

(20) Ai Gong, sovereign of the state of Lu, asked about the way to govern the state, replied Confucius:“The government decrees of King Wen and King Wu of the Zhou Dynasty were put down in the codes and records.  With the saint monarch and the virtuous ministers, decrees of King Wen and King Wu were enforced; without such monarch and ministers, these decrees would be annulled.  The knack of choosing right persons is to discern and make proper use of those who are diligent in serving the state, the knack of utilizing the earth is to plant bushes and trees.  Once the knack is known and put into effect, to govern the state is as easy as to plant cattail which grows fast.  The crux of governing a state is to gather the able and virtuous around yourself.  To gather them up you have to well cultivate yourself; to well cultivate yourself, you have to act according to norms generally accepted under the heaven; to act according to norms generally accepted under the heaven, you have to follow the principle of benevolence.

“To be ‘benevolent’ is to be ‘humane’.  To keep yourself close to the dear ones who love and esteem you is the greatest benevolence.  To be ‘righteous’ is to be ‘fitting and proper’.  To respect the able and virtuous is the greatest righteousness.  The different ways of keeping yourselfclose to the dear ones who love and esteem youand the different ways of respecting the able and virtuous result from different requirements of etiquettes.  Therefore,those who occupy dominant positions have to well cultivate themselves. Those who want to well cultivate themselves have to attend on their parents; those who want to attend on their parents have to k now the reasons for respecting the able and virtuous and loving others; those who want to know these reasons have to learn about the way of Heaven.”   

The great norms generally accepted under the heaven include five aspects whose realization depends upon three kinds of moral character.  The relation between the monarch and his subjects. The relation between the father and the son, the relation between the husband and the wife, the relation between brothers, and contacts with friends are the five aspects.  The three kinds of moral character of sagacity, charity and courage are generally respected under the heaven, and the conditions needed for manifesting such moral character are the same.  People know the above in different ways, some by natural gift, some by learning and some by going through hardships, but the effects the acquisition of the knowledge brings about upon them are the same.  People practice the above with different attitudes, some fell at ease and justified, some strive for benefits, and some are reluctant, but when they succeed in the practice, the effects the practice brings about upon them are the same.

Said Confucius: “One approaches the level of sagacity when he loves studying, one approaches the level of charity when he insists on doing good deeds, one approaches the level of courage when he has the sense of shame.  When one has known these three points, he knows how to enhance his self-cultivation; when one has known how to enhance his self-cultivation, he knows how to administer the people’s affairs; when one has known how to administer the people’s affairs, he knows how to administer the country.”                   

There are nine canons effecting administering the country:enhancing self-cultivation, esteeming the able and virtuous, keeping oneself close to the dear ones, knowing the ministers, showing solicitude for officials, loving the people as one loves his sons, drumming for craftsmen, carrying out the policy of mollification in outlying districts and placating the feudal dukes and princes.  To enhance self-cultivation is to achieve high moral standards; to esteem the able and virtuous enables one to avoid perplexed ness when confronting problems; to keep oneself close to the dear ones prevents resentment among uncles and brothers; to honor the ministers makes one clear-headed in his work; to show solicitude for officials prods them to requite one with redoubled efforts; to love the people as one loves his sons inspires them to work more self-consciously; to drum for craftsmen brings about abundance of goods; to carry out the policy of mollification in outlying districts results in their coming over and pledging allegiance; and to placate’ the feudal dukes and princes impels all people under the heaver to revere the monarch.                                             

To keep a pious heart and a dignified look, and refuse to do anything inconsistent with etiquettes are ways to enhance self-cultivation.  To dismiss those who speak ill of others, stay at a distance from beautiful women, despise wealth and value moral character are ways to appeal to the able and virtuous.  To keep the dear ones’ ranks of nobility venerated, raise their emoluments and have the same taste as theirs are ways to draw them to oneself.  To leave sufficient subordinates at the ministers’ disposal is the way to encourage them to advise more.  To keep one’s word and let the officials high-salaried are ways to make them work harder.  To impose on the people timely corvee and low tax is the way to attract them.  To pay the craftsmen wages and supply them food on the basis of daily and monthly investigation are ways to stimulate them to do their best.  To see off those who depart and welcome those who arrive, praise those doing good deeds and sympathize with those lacking in capability are ways to mollify the people in outlying districts.  To last the pedigree whose  existence is at stake, revive the declining states, curb the riots, support those in perils, grant audiences and receive tributes on the right time, bestow more rewards and take in fewer tributes are ways to placate the feudal dukes and princes.  The conditions needed for fulfilling the nine canons are the same.

Preparedness ensures success, while unpreparedness spells failure.  To be beforehand with one’s words, one can prevent speaking haltingly; to be beforehand with the emerging problem, one can prevent frustration, to be beforehand with one’s action, one can prevent making mistakes; to be beforehand with one’s behavioral principle, one can prevent going into an impasse.             

If a subordinate is not in his superior’s confidence, he can never administer the people’s affairs.  There is a way to have the superior’s confidence: one will not have it unless he has his friends’ confidence.  There is a way to have one’s friends’ confidence: one will not have it unless he is obedient to his parents.  There is a way to be obedient to one’s parents: one will not be so obedient unless he is honest.  There is a way to be honest: one will not be honest unless he knows what good is.

Honesty is the way of Heaven, to be honest is the way of man.  The saint displays natural honesty, he does so ungrudgingly, he achieves it without thinking, but his conduct is fit spontaneously for the standard set by the way of Heaven.  As for the ordinary men, they have to make choice of and adhere to the proper way to be honest: to study extensively, inquire meticulously, think cautiously, discern clearly and practice sincerely.

If one is to study, he should never give up until he masters the subject he studies; if one is to inquire, he should never give up until he understands the question he inquires; if one is to think, he should never give up until he acquires a knowledge of what he thinks; if one is to discern, he should never give up until he makes a clear distinction between things; if one is to practice, he should never give up until he carries the doct6rine through to the end.  When engaged in an activity, I should work it out by one hundred times while others need only once, I shall work it out by one thousand times while others need only ten times.  If this is really done, the ignorant will be intelligent, and the frail will be firm.

 

 

第二十一章

 

自誠明, 謂之性; 自明誠, 謂之教。誠則明矣, 明則誠矣。

 

今譯

由於內心誠實而做到明察事理, 這叫做天賦的本性; 由於明察事理而做到內心誠實, 這叫做後天的教化。做到內心誠實就能做到明察事理了, 而能夠做到明察事理也就能夠做到內心誠實了。

                                                                                                                                   

(21)    The sharp-sightedness in discernment resulting from the innermost honesty is an innate nature; the innermost honesty resulting from the sharp-sightedness in discernment is due to postnatal inculcation.  When one is honest in his innermost being, he may well be sharp-sighted in discernment; and when one is sharp-sighted in discernment, he may well be honest in his innermost being.           

 

 

第二十二章

 

唯天下至誠, 為能盡其性; 能盡其性, 則能盡人之性; 能盡人之性, 則能盡物之性; 能盡物之性, 則可以贊天地之化育; 可以贊天地之化育, 則可以與天地參矣。

 

今譯

只有天下最真誠的人, 才能夠完全發揮個人的本性; 能夠完全發揮個人的本性, 就能夠完全發揮眾人的本性; 能夠完全發揮眾人的本性, 就能夠完全發揮萬物的本性; 能夠完全發揮萬物的本性, 就能夠幫助天地養育萬物; 能夠幫助天地養育萬物, 也就能夠與天地相並列了。

 

(22)        Only the saint who is the most honest can develop his individuality to perfection; when his individuality  fully developed, he can bring potentiality of the masses into full play in accordance with their inherent qualities; when the potentialities of the masses fully tapped, he can make the most of everything under heaven in accordance with their properties; when everything under heaven fully wielded, he can help the Heaven and the Earth grow and nourish everything; when everything is make to grow and nourish, he can stand side by side with the Heaven and the Earth.                                  

 

 

第二十三章

 

其次致曲, 曲能有誠; 誠則形, 形則著, 著則明, 明則動, 動則變, 變則化; 唯天下至誠為能化。

 

今譯

次一等的人則能從局部小事做起。從局部小事做起也能做到內心誠實。做到內心誠實就會表現出來, 表現出來就會變清楚, 變清楚就會光煇明亮, 光煇明亮就會激勵人心, 激勵人心就會改變人心, 改變人心就會移風易俗, 只有天下最誠實的人才能做到移風易俗。

                                                                                                                                   

(23)  Those who are second to the saint, though engaged in activities of minor importance, can also attain innermost honesty.  When one is honest in his innermost being, he is bound to demonstrate his honesty.  Honesty when demonstrated will illuminate and shine bright, then strike the hearts of the people, and remould their mind.  When it remould people’s mind, it transforms the prevailing habits and customs.  This task can only be fulfilled by the most honest.                                                                         

 

第二十四章

 

至誠之道, 可以前知 :國家將興, 必有禎祥; 國家將亡, 必有妖孽; 見乎蓍龜, 動乎四體; 禍福將至, 善, 必先知之, 不善, 必先知之; 故至誠如神。

 

今譯

做到極端誠實, 可以預知未來。國家將要振興的時候, 一定會有吉祥的徵兆; 國家將要滅亡的時候, 一定會有不祥的徵兆。這些徵兆會在蓍草龜甲上表現出來, 在四肢動作上反映出來。禍福將要降臨時, 好事一定會預先知道, 壞事也一定會預先知道。所以,